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What is Gatsby.Js and What Problems Does it Solve?

According to their site, “Gatsby is a free and open source framework based on React that helps developers build blazing fast websites and apps”. Gatsby allows the developers to make a site using React and work with any data source (CMSs, Markdown, etc) of their choice. And then at the build time it pulls the data from these sources and spits out a bunch of static files that are optimized by Gatsby for performance. Gatsby loads only the critical HTML, CSS and JavaScript so that the site loads as fast as possible. Once loaded, Gatsby prefetches resources for other pages so clicking around the site feels incredibly fast.

What Gatsby Tries to Achieve?

  • Construct new, higher-level web building blocks: Gatsby is trying to build abstractions like gatsby-image, gatsby-link which will make web development easier by providing building blocks instead of making a new component for each project.
  • Create a cohesive “content mesh system”: The Content Management System (CMS) was developed to make the content sites possible. Traditionally, a CMS solution was a monolith application to store content, build sites and deliver them to users. But with time, the industry moved to using specialized tools to handle the key areas like search, analytics, payments, etc which have improved rapidly, while the quality of monolithic enterprise CMS applications like Adobe Experience Manager and Sitecore has stayed roughly the same.

    To tackle this modular CMS architecture, Gatsby aims to build a “content mesh” – the infrastructure layer for a decoupled website. The content mesh stitches together content systems in a modern development environment while optimizing website delivery for performance. The content mesh empowers developers while preserving content creators’ workflows. It gives you access to best-of-breed services without the pain of manual integration.
Gatsby.js Architecture

Image Source: Gatsby

Make building websites fun by making them simple: Each of the stakeholder in a website project should be able to see their creation quickl Using these building blocks along with the content mesh, website building feels fun no matter how big it gets. As Alan Kay said, “you get simplicity by finding slightly more sophisticated building blocks”.

An example of this can be seen in gatsby-image component. First lets consider how a single image gets on a website:
1. A page is designed
2. Specific images are chosen
3. The images are resized (with ideally multiple thumbnails to fit different devices)
4. And finally, the image(s) are included in the HTML/CSS/JS (or React component) for the page.

gatsby-image is integrated into Gatsby's data layer and uses its image processing capabilities along with graphql to query for differently sized and shaped images.

We also skip the complexity around lazy-loading the images which are placed within placeholders. Also the complexity in generating the right sized image thumbnails is also taken care of.

So instead of a long pipeline of tasks to setup optimized images for your site, the steps now are:
1. Install gatsby-image
2. Decide what size of image you need
3. Add your query and the gatsby-image component to your page
4. And…that’s it!
Now images are fun!

  • Build a better web – qualities like speed, security, maintainability SEO, etc should be baked into the framework being used. If they are implemented on a per-site basis then it is a luxury. Gatsby bakes these qualities by default so that the right thing is the easy thing. The most high-impact way to make the web better is to make it high-quality by default.

It is More Than Just a Static Site Generator

Gatsby is not just for creating static sites. Gatsby is fully capable of generating a PWA with all the things we think that a modern web app can do, including auth, dynamic interactions, fetching data etc.

Gatsby does this by generating the static content using React DOM server-side APIs. Once this basic HTML is generated by Gatsby, React picks up where we left off. That basically means that Gatsby renders as much, upfront, as possible statically then client side React picks up and now we can do whatever a traditional React web app can do.

Best of Both Worlds

Generating statically generated HTML and then giving client-side React to do whatever it needs to do, using Gatsby gives us the best of both the worlds.

Statically rendered pages maximize SEO, provide a better TTI, general web performance, etc. Static sites have an easy global distribution and are easier to deploy


If the code runs successfully in the development mode (Gatsby develop) it doesn’t mean that there will be no issues with the build version. An easy solution is to build the code regularly and solve the issues. It is easy enough for where the build has to be generated after every change and the build time is a couple of minutes. But if there are frequent changes and the build gets created a few times a week or month, then it might be harder to do as multiple issues will have to be solved at the build time.

If you have a very big site with a lot of styled components and libraries then the build time increases substantially. If the build takes half an hour to build then it is no longer feasible to run the build after every change which makes finding the build issues regularly complicated.

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